Policies and Procedures

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Peer review

A rigorous peer-review process ensures ourarticles to be scientifically accurate,clinically relevant, and extensively unbiased. Peer reviewsare conducted by ourEditorial Board andother available specialists who have both the experience and expertise invarious subjects. All articles will also go through a double-blind basis review, which will ensure the identities of the authors and the peer reviewers to bekept confidential. Peer reviewers are highly obliged todisclose potential conflicts of interests, whether or notthey may or may not affect theability of the reviewers to provide an accurate and unbiased appraisal (see Conflict of Interest Policy below). Peer reviewers are required to complete a referee report form.On this form, the reviewers provide general comments to the editor and both general and specific comments to the author(s).

In cases whenan author insiststhat an editor has made an error in declining a paper, the latter may submit an appeal. The letter of appeal should clearly state the logical reasons why the author(s) believesthe declining decision of the editor to be incorrect and provide clear, detailed, and specific comments regardingthe rejection of the submitted article. Further advice regarding the eligibility of the article for re-review will be given by themembers of the journal’s Editorial Board and/or from other external experts. All articles will undergo through our standard peer-review process. The decisions of acceptance or rejection will be based on their own merit.


Most manuscripts are required to be revised prior to acceptance. After the revision, the authors need toprovide at least two copies of the revised version of themanuscript –one should include highlights that show where the changes have been made, while the other should present the clean revised version. Complete, specific, and detailed responses of the author to the reviewers’ comments should also be included (authors are required tocomplete these mentioned sections in the Peer Review Report Form supplied by the staff). At this point, manuscripts may be accepted or may be passedto be processed for further peer review. The final decision ofacceptability for publication dependsonthe journal editor.


Accepted manuscripts will go throughproduction in-house, which involves type-setting,re-drawing, copy-editing, and proof-reading of graphics. As the authorsreceivethe copy of their article for approval, our production department will set a deadline of response to make surethat it will not affect the issue release. If the author believes that they may be unable to check the galley proofs any point soon, please let the in-house editorial team know as soon as possible.

Post acceptance authors will be asked to sign a transfer of copyright agreement.

Embargo policy

Subsequent tothe acceptance of the articles for publication, the authors (and their institutions, etc.) are freeto publicize the publication.Authorswho wishto do so should informthe editor of the details ahead of time. There must be no publicity relating to the publication in a PRAS that should be conducted while the manuscript is still under the process of consideration.

In cases where data istreated as high public health importance, the policy mentioned above may be waived.in this case, the authorities responsible for the public health should be the one to be responsible for the decision of whether or not to disseminate the information to physicians and to the public media in advance, and should be responsible for the consequences of thedecision. The journal editor mustbe informed if these circumstances apply.

Any queries relating to the publicity of manuscripts should be directed to the journal editor.

Disclosure & conflict of interest policy

Authors mustexplicitly state whether there are financial and/or nonfinancial relationships that may potentially raise a conflict in the processing ofthe subject matter discussed in the manuscript.Such potential conflict of interest such as the sources of funding should come in a summary attached in a separate section of the published article. Authors should disclose information such as the receiving of writing assistance and should include the funding sources for such assistance. Authors who claim todeclaring the absence of conflict of interest in their research are required to publish a statementsupportingyour claim within the article.

Authors must certify their disclosed relationships in which they or a close family member is employed, a contractor, a service provider, or otherwise a collaborator in scientific or commercial pursuits – even without direct monetary remuneration. Stock holdings as well asissued or pending patents of an author or a family member also need to be disclosed. This is not exclusive inother various forms of financial involvement. A disclosure window good for 36 months should be used. Complete details of relevant conflicts of interests or the lack of such must be statedin the ‘Disclosure’ section of the manuscript Where all authors who contributed in the research are listed.

External peer reviewers must also disclose any conflicts of interest that may result to abias in their opinions of the manuscript, and if they believe it to be appropriate, they should be the one to disqualify themselves from reviewing a specific manuscript. Should any conflict of interest be declared as such, the journal editor will be the one to judge or interpret the comments of the reviewer in the context of the declaration or the comments be recognized at all.

PRASneeds to endorse the Recommendations ofthe Conduct, Reporting, Editing and Publication of Scholarly Work in terms of Medical Journals. It must be issued by the International Committee for Medical Journal Editors., Regarding conflicts of interest, information should includethose related to the Authors, Peer Reviewers, Editors and other Journal Staff.

Ethical conduct of research

For studies that involvedata relatedto human or animal experimentations, an institutional review board approval and other similar describing information in an articleis required by the management. As for investigators who don’t havea committee for ethics review, the principles in theDoH(Declaration of Helsinki) should be followed. For investigations that involvehuman subjects, authors should statehow theconsent from the involved participants was obtained.

Patients’ rights to privacy

Patients have a right to privacy.Including patients as one of the human subjects of a research investigation is not permitted until the informed consent from the patient, the parent, or the legal guardian is obtained. Personal information mustnot be included for the publishing unless suchinformation is relevantfor scientific purposes and alsounless the patient, the parent or legal guardian gives a written informed consent allowing for official publication. The informed consent requires the patient to be shown the manuscript once it is published. The informed consent should be indicated in the manuscript as soon as it is obtained.

In ] maintainingtheanonymity of the patient, unnecessary details need not to be included in the manuscript. Moreover, thedata of the patient and the corresponding information gathered from the subject and other respondents should not and neverbe amended nor falsified. Otherwise, when there is doubt on whether or not the anonymity cannot be assured or maintained, secure an informed consent

Clinical trial registration

We publish clinical trials included in a clinical trials registry that has been madeaccessible for free public viewing without anycosts of charge. Our publish clinical trials areelectronically searchable, are open to potentialregistrants and aremanaged by a public, not-for-profit organization, such as www.clinicaltrials.gov (sponsored by the United States National Library of Medicine).

Unregistered clinical trials should be indicated. The reason for non-registration should be provided.


Should the authors notice errors, they must contact and inform the Journal Manager regarding such concern immediately.We at PRAS open will do our bestto notify the author as soon as possiblein such cases whenany erratum or corrigendum is published. Mistakes done by either the editor or the author mustbe detected and correctedas early aspossible and an erratum or a corrigendum must also be published at the earliest possible opportunity. The journal manager,togetherwith the Editor(s) are the ones todetermine the changes made and decide the most appropriate courses of action to be taken.

Duplicate publication/submission & plagiarism

All submitted manuscripts are considered for publication, provided that they have not been published in the previous yearselsewhere or otherwise under the process of consideration for publication elsewhere.

A plagiarism detection software is used to evaluate all submitted articles.This software compares the submitted manuscript with full-text articles from all major journals from various external sources in databases and on the internet.

Submission of articles with detected duplications will result to a 2-year ban on future submissions. Self-plagiarism of text, undisclosed conflict, and other ethical issues are considered as scientific misconduct. This act of misconduct will be addressed to a reprimand of up to 2years of ban on submissions.

Scientific misconduct & retraction

Should the authors or reviewers display an extent of misconduct at any stage of publication, certainaction will be taken at the highest necessity. The involved party or parties are given theopportunity to provide a clear, logical explanation for the displayed undesired actions. If the response is considered to beunsatisfactory, we will make all the reasonable necessary attempts to come up witha resolution. If not, we will have to retract the article be banned on future submissions.

The author may complete the necessary actions required above prior to the specified timeframe. However, a request should be directed to PRAS. Do this in our website’s Permissions Requests page.

For more information regarding the rights of authors in the use of specific parts of their published articles for future works, readour Permissions Requests page. While the use of submitted articles are considered under requests of formal permissions, reproduction of articles for commercial purposes are strictly prohibited. This reproduction prohibition includes commercial use with a monetary gain or an indirect gain.Furthermore, an author may retain his/herrights to be granted aa royalty or to receive payment for scholarship works.

Articles published via the open access option (article processing fee applies):

With the standard option for PRAS open access, PRAS is able to publish articles under a license of Creative Commons CC BY-NC-ND., This particular license allowsfor the dissemination ofan open access basis.However, it still does not permit any forms of commercial exploitation or even the creation of derivative works. To create a derivative work, an author needs to obtain official permission (for further details from www.creativecommons.org). To request permissions, go to the Permissions Requests page of the website.

Provided that the authors have completed the necessary requirements, have given the appropriate acknowledgment to the journal publisher, and have cited the full bibliographic reference ofthe article, as soon asit is published in open access, the authors may:

Share printed versions or versions of electronic copies of thearticle with colleagues Post the version of record on:a HB CV uni

Personal websites

The website of the employer Free public servers within the subject area Use all or some parts of an article and abstract forpersonal compilations. Scholarly publications atwork (and may receive a royalty or other payment for such work) Use an article inaninstitution or a company of an employer for research or educational purposes, including use forcourse packs

In whole or in part, third parties need to use an article published underthe open access option route, , in accordance with the specific conditions outlined in thelicense of the CC BY-NC-ND license.